How can I read all users using keycloak and spring?

How can I read all users using keycloak and spring?

In order to access the whole list of users, you must verify that the logged user contains at least the view-users role from the realm-management client, see this answer I wrote some time ago. Once the user has this role, the JWT she retrieves will cointain it.

As I can infer from your comments, you seem to lack some bases about the Authorization header. Once the user gets logged in, she gets the signed JWT from keycloak, so as every client in the realm can trust it, without the need to ask Keycloak. This JWT contains the access token, which is later on required in the Authorization header for each of users request, prefixed by the Bearer keyword (see Token-Based Authentication in https://auth0.com/blog/cookies-vs-tokens-definitive-guide/).

So when user makes the request to your app in order to view the list of users, her access token containing the view-users role already goes into the request headers. Instead of having to parse it manually, create another request yourself to access the Keycloak user endpoint and attach it (as you seem to be doing with KeycloakBuilder), the Keycloak Spring Security adapter already provides a KeycloakRestTemplate class, which is able to perform a request to another service for the current user:

SecurityConfig.java

@Configuration
@EnableWebSecurity
@ComponentScan(basePackageClasses = KeycloakSecurityComponents.class)
public class SecurityConfig extends KeycloakWebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

    ...

    @Autowired
    public KeycloakClientRequestFactory keycloakClientRequestFactory;

    @Bean
    @Scope(ConfigurableBeanFactory.SCOPE_PROTOTYPE)
    public KeycloakRestTemplate keycloakRestTemplate() {
        return new KeycloakRestTemplate(keycloakClientRequestFactory);
    }

    ...
}

Note the scope for the template is PROTOTYPE, so Spring will use a different instance for each of the requests being made.

Then, autowire this template and use it to make requests:

@Service
public class UserRetrievalService{

    @Autowired
    private KeycloakRestTemplate keycloakRestTemplate;

    public List<User> getUsers() {
        ResponseEntity<User[]> response = keycloakRestTemplate.getForEntity(keycloakUserListEndpoint, User[].class);
        return Arrays.asList(response.getBody());
    }

}

You will need to implement your own User class which matches the JSON response returned by the keycloak server.

Note that, when user not allowed to access the list, a 403 response code is returned from the Keycloak server. You could even deny it before yourself, using some annotations like: @PreAuthorize(hasRole(VIEW_USERS)).

Last but not least, I think @dchrzasciks answer is well pointed. To sum up, I would say theres actually another way to avoid either retrieving the whole user list from the keycloak server each time or having your users stored in your app database: you could actually cache them, so as you could update that cache if you do user management from your app.


EDIT

Ive implemented a sample project to show how to obtain the whole list of users, uploaded to Github. It is configured for a confidential client (when using a public client, the secret should be deleted from the application.properties).

See also:

I suggest double checking if you really need to have your own user store. You should relay solely on Keycloaks users federation to avoid duplicating data and hence avoiding issues that comes with that. Among others, Keycloak is responsible for managing users and you should let it do its job.

Since you are using OIDC there are two things that you benefit from:

  1. In the identity token that you get in form of JWT you have a sub field. This field uniquely identifies a user. From the OpenID Connect spec:

    REQUIRED. Subject Identifier. A locally unique and never reassigned identifier within the Issuer for the End-User, which is intended to be consumed by the Client, e.g., 24400320 or AItOawmwtWwcT0k51BayewNvutrJUqsvl6qs7A4. It MUST NOT exceed 255 ASCII characters in length. The sub value is a case sensitive string.

    In keycloak, sub is just a UUID. You can use this field to correlate your object A to user B. In your DB this would be just a regular column, not a foreign key.

    In Java, you can access this JWT data using security context. You can also take a look at keycloaks authz-springboot quickstart where it is shown how you can access KeycloakSecurityContext – from there you can get an IDToken which has a getSubject method.

  2. Keycloak provides Admin REST API that has a users resource. This is OIDC supported API so you have to be properly authenticated. Using that API you can perform operations on users – including listing them. You can consume that API directly or through use of Java SDK: keycloak admin client.

    In this scenario, you should use the JWT that you get from user in request. Using JWT you are sure that someone who is making a request can list all users in that realm. For instance, please consider following code:

    @GetMapping(/users)
    public List<UserRepresentation> check(HttpServletRequest request){
        KeycloakSecurityContext context = (KeycloakSecurityContext) request.getAttribute(KeycloakSecurityContext.class.getName());
    
        Keycloak keycloak = KeycloakBuilder.builder()
                                       .serverUrl(http://localhost:8080/auth)
                                       .realm(example)
                                       .authorization(context.getTokenString())
                                       .resteasyClient(new ResteasyClientBuilder().connectionPoolSize(20).build())
                                       .build();
    
       List<UserRepresentation> list = keycloak.realm(example).users().list();
    
       return list;
    }
    

    In that case we are using HttpServletRequest and token that it contains. We can get the same data through use of org.springframework.security.core.Authentication from spring security or directly getting an Authorization header. The thing is that KeycloakBuilder expects a string as a authorization, not an AccessToken – this is the reason why you have that error.

    Please keep in mind that in order for this to work, user that is creating a requests, has to have a view-users role from realm-management client. You can assign that role to him in Role Mapping tab for that user or some group to which he belongs.

    Besides, you have to be properly authenticated to benefit from security context, otherwise you will get a null. Exemplary spring security keycloak configuration class is:

    @Configuration
    @EnableWebSecurity
    @ComponentScan(basePackageClasses = KeycloakSecurityComponents.class)
    class SecurityConfig extends KeycloakWebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    
    @Autowired
    public void configureGlobal(AuthenticationManagerBuilder auth) throws Exception {
        KeycloakAuthenticationProvider keycloakAuthenticationProvider = keycloakAuthenticationProvider();
        keycloakAuthenticationProvider.setGrantedAuthoritiesMapper(new SimpleAuthorityMapper());
        auth.authenticationProvider(keycloakAuthenticationProvider);
    }
    
    @Bean
    public KeycloakSpringBootConfigResolver KeycloakConfigResolver() {
        return new KeycloakSpringBootConfigResolver();
    }
    
    @Bean
    @Override
    protected SessionAuthenticationStrategy sessionAuthenticationStrategy() {
        return new RegisterSessionAuthenticationStrategy(new SessionRegistryImpl());
    }
    
    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        super.configure(http);
        http.authorizeRequests()
            .antMatchers(/api/users/*)
            .hasRole(admin)
            .anyRequest()
            .permitAll();
    }
    }
    

How can I read all users using keycloak and spring?

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