java – What is the relation between Spring @Transactional and Spring @Lock annotation?

java – What is the relation between Spring @Transactional and Spring @Lock annotation?

Transactional: Whenever you put @Transactional annotation, it enables transactional behavior which qualifies ACID properties

ACID: ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) is a set of
properties of database transactions intended to guarantee the validity
even in the event of errors.

Guarantees that all operations in a transaction are treated as a single “unit”, which either succeeds completely or fails completely.

Ensures that a transaction can only bring the database from one valid state to another by preventing data corruption.

Determines how and when changes made by one transaction become visible to the other. Serializable and Snapshot Isolation are the top 2 isolation levels from a strictness standpoint.

Ensures that the results of the transaction are permanently stored in the system. The modifications must persist even in case of power loss or system failures.

Lock: It should not be confused with transactional,@Lock enables locking behavior during a transaction

JPA has two main lock types defined.

  1. Pessimistic Locking
  2. Optimistic Locking

If you want to know more about Pessimistic and Obtimistic locking you can explore the internet, below is explanation from Baeldung,

Pessimistic Locking When we are using Pessimistic Locking in a
transaction and access an entity, it will be locked immediately. The
transaction releases the lock either by committing or rolling back the

Optimistic Locking In Optimistic Locking, the transaction doesnt lock
the entity immediately. Instead, the transaction commonly saves the
entitys state with a version number assigned to it.

When we try to update the entitys state in a different transaction,
the transaction compares the saved version number with the existing
version number during an update.

At this point, if the version number differs, it means that the entity
cant be modified. If there is an active transaction then that
transaction will be rolled back and the underlying JPA implementation
will throw an OptimisticLockException.

Apart from the version number approach, we can use other approaches
such as timestamps, hash value computation, or serialized checksum,
depending on which approach is the most suitable for our current
development context.

There are also other lock types available in spring

  • NONE: No lock.
  • OPTIMISTIC: Optimistic lock.
  • OPTIMISTIC_FORCE_INCREMENT: Optimistic lock, with version update.
  • PESSIMISTIC_FORCE_INCREMENT: Pessimistic write lock, with version update
  • PESSIMISTIC_READ: Pessimistic read lock.
  • PESSIMISTIC_WRITE: Pessimistic write lock.
  • READ: Synonymous with OPTIMISTIC.

Now answer to your questions

  1. What are the major differences/relations in these two annotations?

You will understand after reading above

  1. When to use @Transactional and when to use @Lock?

If you want transactional behavior then add @transactional and if your usecase requires locking and as per use case use appropriate locking

  1. Is @Lock useful in the distributed database system to provide data
    concurrency and consistency?

The two main tools we use to cope with concurrency are database transactions and distributed locks. These two are not interchangeable. You cant use a transaction when you need a lock. You cant use a lock when you need a transaction. source

java – What is the relation between Spring @Transactional and Spring @Lock annotation?

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